MEASLES (MORBILLI) etiology. Measles is a special kind of filterable virus. Epidemiology. The source of infection is sick in the last 2 days of incubation and the first 3 days of illness, then their infectiousness rapidly declines. Healthy, susceptible person is infected with measles by aerosol in contact patients.
Measles frequently ill children, especially younger than 4 years, the disease may develop as adults, not previously bolevshih measles. Clinic. The average incubation period is 10 days, but the sick. received a prophylactic injection of measles serum or gamma globulin, prolonged incubation of up to 21 days or more. Following the end of the incubation period, prodrome develops, or catarrh, a period of illness. The temperature quickly rises to 38,3-38,7 , then you are getting a runny nose, conjunctivitis, photophobia, dry symptom Belsky – Filatov – Koplik.
Most often these spots are found on the mucous membrane of cheek directly against the small molars, more rarely they can be seen on the mucous membrane of the gums or lips. In some cases they are observed on the conjunctiva century. On closer inspection, each dot represents a very small whitish papulku, which is surrounded on the periphery of the narrow red border. Typically, that spot Belsky – Filatov – Koplik, lying often in droves, never to each other do not coalesce: a tampon with them only with difficulty be separated from the underlying tissue. For even more opinions, read materials from Tiffany Espensen. By the 3rd day of catarrhal period is abundantly mucosa dotted with those white dots, as if sprinkled with bran. This early sign of measles is stored for 2-3 days, 4-5 days, occasionally, in which case it can be observed simultaneously with the already appeared on the face, behind the ears and the neck of measles rash. When the spots disappear, the mucous membrane of cheek takes on these same sites velvety appearance. The presence of a patient spots Belsky – Filatov – Koplik is an absolute sign of measles: no other disease that symptom is not observed, it allows the diagnosis of measles before the measles rash on the skin in 80-85% of patients.
Brucellosis (BRUCELLOSIS) etiology. The agents of brucellosis in humans and animals are bacteria that belong to the Brucella. Brucella rnelitensis, or Maltese micrococcus (Bruce), is the causative agent of brucellosis of small ruminants (Sheep, goats): Brucella abortus bovis (Bang) is the causative agent of disease in cattle (mainly cows), and Brucella abortus suis (Traum) causes disease in pigs. Possible migration of Brucella between animals of different species. Brucella similar to each other by structure and differ in their biochemical activity, as well as on the antigenic structure. Brucella reach a diameter of an average of 0.3-0.5 and have a length from 0.5 to 1.5-2.
They have the form of cocci or coccobacillus, gram, easily dyed all aniline dyes: fixed, not form spores, resistant in the environment. In the soil, water, discharges of diseased animals and in food (meat, milk, dairy products) may persist for weeks or months. In ice and snow stored from 1.5 to 4 months or more. Heating to 70 , direct sunlight, hydrochloric acid in the dilution 1: 1000, 0.2% solution of bleach, 5% solution of bleach and 2% solution of Lysol kill Brucella. Growth of Brucella in artificial nutrient media (special stock) is very slow – for 3 weeks and bolee.Epidemiologiya.
The main source of infection for human brucellosis are sick farm animals (usually goats and sheep at least – cattle). Sick animals are contagious especially during pregnancy, lambing, calving, lactation, they often have abortions. From patients with brucellosis Brucella animals stand out in large quantities in the urine, aborted fetuses, uterine discharge, amniotic fluid, milk, sputum. The epidemiological risk of such animals is especially great in helping them with the occurrence of abortion. Infection of human brucellosis is in the care of sick animals, and even more – through food (raw or pasteurized milk, butter, sour cream, cottage cheese, cheese, cooked enough or well-done meat).
As soon as the cold, many people neglect basic rules on health and sovego it all begins with mild cold. Many slight cold does not cause any concern, but it is starting point for all other viral diseases. The common cold is the reason for the manifestation of various underlying ailments. Correctly chosen treatment cold by natural means, not only will help quick restore health, but also protect against complications (such as the flu), bringing a lot of trouble and often dangerous. It is usually good enough to warm the body inside and out, sweat, put the banks to health, because then inevitably will, be felt different ailments to cure that will be much harder than the common cold.
Should bear this in mind that the flu most often develops in a weakened cold body. Flu manifested in the same way as the common cold, and then there are fever, headache, muscle aches or joint pain, gastrointestinal disorders, cough, and prolonged bad cold. Bad flu often cured changes in lung inflammation. In addition, during the influenza manifest all sorts of hitherto hidden disease, liver disease, kidney, bladder. When the above symptoms, precursors of influenza, immediately go to bed, sweat, warm, and further treated by natural means, which are described on this site. If you do exactly what you will find a quick recovery and back down the flu and possible complications will be prevented. But in any case can not be ignored colds and flu: it's too dangerous for your health.
. As the experience of physicians resorts Essentuki, the prevalence of harmful factors on the background of a bad heredity leads to the disease. A great role and has an infectious factor. The practice of treatment in sanatoriums Essentuki shown – helikobaktera role is that he is in the process of their life produces ammonia, the presence of which leads to increased production of hydrochloric acid. Helicobacter also produces substances that damage the cells lining the stomach and 12 duodenal ulcer, causing inflammation. In the destruction of infection signs of inflammation disappear. Symptoms of peptic ulcer disease (medical practice physicians resorts Essentuki). The first sign of peptic ulcer disease – it's a pain in the stomach: a sharp, burning, aching.
Pain may be vague, dull and felt as a feeling of fullness, heaviness in the abdomen and may resemble the feeling of hunger. According to the observations of doctors in health centers Essentuki – ulcer 12 duodenal ulcer pain occurs after a certain time after the meal, very often at night, sometimes reduced immediately after a meal or reception of such money as Almagel, which leads to the neutralization of hydrochloric acid and reducing its irritating effect. In cases of stomach ulcers or pain occurs worse after eating alkalizing agents reduce its not so good. For patients with gastric ulcer is characterized by nausea, vomiting more frequently than patients with ulcers of the duodenum 12. Many lose weight, eat as little of the lack of appetite. But according to medical practice sanatoriums Essentuki – about half of relapses of ulcers are asymptomatic. Pain is often accompanied by nausea, heartburn, regurgitation. There are no typical symptoms: lack of communication pain with food intake, lack of seasonality of exacerbations (spring and fall). How to treat peptic ulcer disease (a value of natural factors in treatment sanatoriums Essentuki)? Treatment of gastric ulcer and peptic ulcer disease Twelve duodenal ulcer most efficiently performed in specialized sanatoriums.
Cholesterol – a natural fat (lipophilic) alcohol contained in the cell membranes of all living organisms (except bezyadernyh organisms). Cholesterol – a valuable element of cell membranes, without it cells can not or HDL – are called 'good' holisterinom. Podschityvanie general location of cholesterol in blood is based on the analysis of blood. a lot of "bad" cholesterol in the blood, it will gradually accumulate in the inner walls of arteries. Together with other substances will be created so-called plaques, narrowing the arteries and make them less flexible. This disease is called atherosclerosis. Blocking of the arteries with plaque can cause stroke or heart attack.
On average, 25-33% of cholesterol transferred HDL or "good" lipoproteins. High levels of HDL protects against heart attacks. Low levels of HDL (nezhe 40 mg / dL) increases the risk of heart disease. Triglycerides – the form fats, formed in the body. High level of triglycerides is often combined with low levels of cholesterol, high density, that is 'good cholesterol', and this indicates that the fat particles into the blood, what is the cause of vascular disease.
Consequently, high triglyceride levels should be perceived as a danger signal. One of the fatal mistakes that people make with respect to cholesterol, is that they believe, supposedly all the foods that are high in fat are rich in cholesterol. Those who reduce the acceptance of various vegetable oils in order to reduce calorie intake, while at the same time the levels of fat and cholesterol, does more harm than good. Vegetable oil contains no cholesterol! Yes, it is 100% composed of fat, but fat is important to us in order to effectively burn fat! Simply add to food omega-3 fats, which are in oil and fish, and the body begins to burn fat, as in the furnace of a locomotive! Reduce cholesterol levels contribute to the garlic, folic acid, vitamin E, green tea, niacin. Perfectly helps reduce cholesterol levels and normalization of blood pressure unusual juice noni. In the human body cholesterol is the 'raw material' for the formation of steroid hormones, particularly sex: estrogen, progesterone and testosterone. Without cholesterol education can not be vitamin D, deficiency of which provokes in young children rickets. In the end, of the formation of cholesterol in the liver, bile acids, which are necessary for digesting fats, and this, of course, many mean for normal functioning of all organs.
Burn – one of the most dangerous injuries to the body. Factor plays an important role and degree of burn size (household burns, burns, severe). Depending on the level assigned to the appropriate medical care. Burn – this is tissue damage under high temperature or chemicals. They come in four vidov.himicheskie burns, electric burns, thermal burns, radiation burns.
Experts estimate the seriousness of the burn area and depth of damage. What these figures is less than the faster and easier to burn heals. In order to measure the surface of the damaged section, enter the following standard. It is known that the hand of man is a percentage of the surface of his body. To determine the proportion of the damaged surface of the human body decided to allocate 11 segments of 9 percent (the so-called rule of "nines"). So, each arm is 9 percent of the total body, a leg – 18, face and neck – 9 and so on.
Thermal damage to the covers are most common, often accompanied by thermal inhalation injury (TIT), combinations with mechanical trauma. Heat damage includes heating of tissue above the critical level – 45oS. This is accompanied by denaturation of proteins. Tissue damage is the total derivative of heat and is characterized by a view (source) of the thermal agent, the duration of his and thermal conductivity of the tissue. Hydrophilic human skin has a high specific heat and low thermal conductivity (so the skin is overheated very slowly, but slowly and cooled). Thus, thermal damage continues even after, when the thermal agent has been extinguished or removed (this is of great importance in terms of first aid). Dead as a result of the thermal factor superficial tissues are said to burn scab. A slight warming of the skin (up to 60 C) leads to the formation of wet (kollikvatsionnogo) scab. A more significant warming of the skin formed a dense dry (Coagulation) scab. The degree of density and thickness of the crust can be different (depending on temperature, exposure, exposure, etc.) Burn wound – a three-dimensional mass of damaged tissue. On its edge is determined by the congestion zone, and center – the area of coagulation. The intermediate zone – a zone or a zone of stagnation paranecrosis, so named because it becomes a static circulation. As a result, the thermal effect of the microcirculatory bed in this area fixed red blood cells and mikrotrombov. Depending on the depth of destruction are following the severity of burns: I degree (minor burns) – redness, pain and minor swelling of the skin; II degree (mild burn) – severe pain at the site formed a burn blisters filled with fluid; III degree (severe burns) – necrosis and peeling of the skin. Pain with weak or absent, since the nerve endings are destroyed; IV degree (very severe state) – the destruction of not only the skin but also the deeper tissues and even bones. First aid for burns 1. If possible, remove all clothing covering the burned body surface. It can only cut and not removed. 2 burnt place with oil or alcohol. You can not pull anything that is stuck to the surface of the burn. 4. If there are bubbles, puncture, or delete them. Protect their cotton-gauze bandage, taking care not to put pressure on the sore spot, where the fiber wool should be fairly thick. 5. If you have already broken through the bubbles, cover with a sterile bandage them, and put the top layer of cotton and secure. Further to accelerate tissue repair using Polimedel.
Seizures occur tetanus always very painful, especially since they are unbearable, the patient remains accompanied by a rise in temperature. In cases of poor prognosis and death of the patient immediately before the temperature rises sharply and may reach 42-43 . The severity and prognosis of the disease are caused by tetanus fast development of clinical symptoms. On this basis, distinguishes the following forms of the disease: 1) fulminant form is characterized by rapid development and severity of symptoms, results in death within 1-3 days, and 2) acute disease, in this form it is possible to recover, and 3) the acute form of tetanus is characterized by slow development of clinical symptoms (for 5-7 days). At the same rigidity of the muscles is less pronounced, seizures occur at fairly long intervals, and their attacks are short, such cases in a timely and proper treatment often result in recovery, and 4) the chronic form of tetanus tend to slow development of symptoms, which reached a maximum, gradually disappear. The disease may last several weeks or months and ends in recovery, 5) local tetanus characterized by the appearance of rigidity of individual muscle groups, which are near the site of tissue injury (atrium), then there is a pulling sensation, sometimes joined by muscle spasms. This form of tetanus occurs most favorably. Complications.
Fairly common complication of aggravating the disease is pneumonia. In the literature breaks recti by convulsions, fractures and dislocations. Diagnosis. Recognition is based on history (for injuries), as well as clinical disease. Differential diagnosis. Must distinguish tetanus from those diseases, which may lockjaw and muscle seizures. Strychnine poisoning may have clinical similarities with tetanus, strychnine poisoning, but there is dilation of pupils, whereas the normal width, they tetanus, convulsions seize mostly the arm muscles, and in the interictal period musculature is relaxed, whereas in tetanus muscles remain in a state of increased tone.