Parkinson’s disease is the most frequent neurodegenerative after Alzheimer’s disorder. It affects around 1% of the population over 55 years of age and is slightly more common in men than in women. Its prevalence increases with age. Has it been involved to various environmental and genetic factors in the development of the disease. Even so, a specific cause is unknown. The disease is due to a loss of the substantia nigra in the midbrain, which inhibits the estriatales neurons through the neurotransmitter known as dopamine. You are neurons estriatales are responsible in turn inhibit the nuclei pale inner and subtalamico, causing a hyperactivity in these two areas.
The symptoms are varied:-pain in neck and shoulders. -Tremor: it usually starts in one hand and extends to the extremities and sometimes the jaw and neck. It is usually rhythmic and to a greater extent be present during rest. It increases with the anxiety and gives during sleep. -Bradykinesia: reducing or slowing of the acts engines automatic and volunteers. It is the symptom most disabling. -Expressionless face. -Slowing of speech, chewing and swallowing.
-Difficulty to develop daily activities (shaving, dressing, eating and walking). -Difficulty of raising the voice, articulating the language and monotone voice. -Demise of Scripture (micrograph), due to the reduction of the amplitude of movement. -Muscle stiffness. -Typical posture of the parkinsonian patient: head, trunk and joints of the arms and legs in Flex. -Reverse with the bent trunk, dragging your feet, taking steps short and without swinging of the arms. -Freezing of gait. -Decreased intellectual, cognitive, memory, perception and language of expression. Visual hallucinations and excessive daytime sleepiness. Depression. -Constipation, excessive sweating, gasps and difficulties in urination (nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency and incontinence). Excessive salivation may also appear. -Muscle and joint pain. – Sensory symptoms: tingling, burning. Parkinson’s disease is progressive. Finally, the patient falls into a State of total immobility that requires much assistance. Without treatment, the average life of the patient is estimated at 9 years. The diagnosis is based on clinical data and response to treatment, as well as on the exclusion of other processes in the interrogation and through studies, such as the computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Medical treatment will be throughout the life of the patient. It is usually effective, although the degree of improvement varies among patients. They consist of anticholinergic drugs, amantadine, levodopa, among others, accompanied by general care.