Pencil – a rod made of coal, lead, graphite or dry compacted powder (in a wooden or metal frame), designed for writing, drawing or sketching. Distinguish graphite, colored, copiers and other pencils. Specific types of pencils are sanguine and pastel. Pencil, is produced primarily from a solid piece of graphite (Borovdalskoe deposit), and now – a mixture of clay 30% -50%) with graphite. After graphite and clay separately subjected to clarification and then stirred them together with water in special mills; pressed frayed dough screw presses for forming a cylinder with holes; pencils finally dried trough between the boards under pressure and then ignited in a ground primers. Black and pencil hardness depends on the graphite content, temperature and duration of calcination, the soft numbers are impregnated then the fat, wax or stearin; rim pencil made of spruce, pine, cypress and juniper. Colored Pencils are made from a mixture of clay, plaster or talc with various paints, cemented gum, solution of shellac in alcohol, a mixture of beeswax and tallow. The best pencils made in Nuremberg, in Russia, Moscow, Vilnius and Riga.